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APA Guide

This guide contains information to help you cite your sources in APA format.

Citing a Journal Article (APA)

Format: Author(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal in Italics, Volume number in italics(issue number), page numbers of article. DOI/URL

Note:  If using a print article or database article use the DOI (if no DOI, skip). If using a non-database article (from a website) with no DOI, use the

URL instead.

Print or Electronic (Database and Internet) Article with a DOI given

Print Example: Bassett, S. D. (2007). Exploring the issue of confidentiality. Nurse Educator, 32(4), 147-153. 

Gale Database Example: Van Driel, A. A., Mulder, M., Stobberingh, E. E., & Verbon, A. (2022). Adherence to and usefulness of the national treatment guideline for urinary tract infections (UTI) in a risk area. BMC Primary Care, 23(1), 1-7.

Internet Example: Farris, M., Bastianelli, C., Rosato, E., Brosens, I., & Benagiano, G. (2019). Uterine fibroids: An update on current and emerging medical treatment options. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management15, 157–178.

Print Article or Article from a Database with no DOI given

Print Example: Bozkurt, O. (2007). Wired for work. Society, 44(2), 33-40. 

EBSCO Example :  Smith, O. P., Roberts, E. E., & Anderson, S. B. (2020). Communicating at work. Management, 14(3), 34-39. 

Electronic Article from the Internet (Not from a Database) with no DOI given

Example: Bass, J. D. (2020). Exploring mental health. American Nursing, 3(8), 47-56.

Helpful Information


In citations for article titles, capitalize only proper nouns and the first word of the article title and subtitle. 

For the journal title, capitalize all the significant words in the title and italicize it (periodical titles are considered proper nouns).

Note: If you mention an article title in your paper, it should be in quotation marks and all major words should be capitalized.


If no date is given, use (n.d.).

DOI versus URL:

Always list the DOI if given. DOI is preferred rather than a URL.

If a DOI is not given, but the source can be found in a library database, then there is no need to include a URL (simply cite the entry the same way you would a print entry). However, if a DOI is not given, and the source is not in a library database - rather found on the internet - then include a URL (to help people find it).

URLs should be as specific as possible (i.e. take the reader directly to the page you used). So use the full URL ( rather than the home page (

Present DOI’s and URL’s as hyperlinks beginning with http:// or https:// (Links can be ‘live’ if your writing is going to be viewed electronically or online). For DOI, the URL should begin with DOI example: 


Double space entries. If an entry runs more than one line, use a hanging indent which indents any additional lines beyond the first (there is a button in Microsoft Word and other programs to do this; do not use the tab button or the space bar).

Acceptable abbreviations can be found on pp. 306-7 of the APA manual.

If what you are citing is not listed in APA manual, choose the example in the manual most like your source.                                                    

Helpful Resources