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APA Guide

This guide contains information to help you cite your sources in APA format.

Citing an Entire Print or E-Book (APA)

Format: Author(s). (Year). Title of book in italics (Edition ed., Vol. volume number). Publisher. DOI/URL.

*Note: If no DOI, skip. If using a non-database (online) E-Book include the URL.

Print Book or Ebook with a DOI given

Example: Duclos-Miller, P. A. (2006). How to cope with stress (2nd ed., Vol. 2). Greenwood.

Ebook from a Database with no DOI given

Example: Sallan, B. A. (2020). The psychology of a child (3rd ed.). Greenwood.

Ebook from the Internet (Not from a Database) with no DOI given

Example: Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (Vol. 2). American Psychological Association.

Helpful Information

Author / Editor:

If no author given, skip the author and move the title in front of the date; alphabetize entry by title.

If group author (company, association, organization, etc.) and publisher are the same, list group author in the author position and skip the publisher (to avoid repetition).

If more than one editor, list all names (following the same rules as multiple authors) and put (Eds.) in parenthesis.


List the publisher's name as shown in the source. Do not abbreviate (unless shown that way). Follow capitalization as shown in source.

Do not include business structures like Inc., Ltd., LLC, etc. even if they appear as part of the publisher's name.

Use imprints or divisions as the publisher if listed (instead of the larger company).


If no date is given, use (n.d.).

DOI versus URL:

Always list the DOI if given. DOI is preferred rather than a URL.

If a DOI is not given, but the source can be found in a library database, then there is no need to include a URL (simply cite the entry the same way you would a print entry). However, if a DOI is not given, and the source is not in a library database - rather found on the internet - then include a URL (to help people find it).

URLs should be as specific as possible (i.e. take the reader directly to the page you used). So use the full URL ( rather than the home page (

Present DOI’s and URL’s as hyperlinks beginning with http:// or https:// (Links can be ‘live’ if your writing is going to be viewed electronically or online)


Double space entries. If an entry runs more than one line, use a hanging indent which indents any additional lines beyond the first (there is a button in Microsoft Word and other programs to do this; do not use the tab button or the space bar).

Capitalize proper nouns and the first words of title and subtitle.

Acceptable abbreviations can be found on pp. 306-7 of the APA manual (7th ed.).

If what you are citing is not listed in APA manual, choose the example in the manual most like your source.

Helpful Resources