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APA Guide

This guide contains information to help you cite your sources in APA format.

Citing a Video (APA)

Format:  Author(s). (Date). Title of video [Type of Media/Description]. Publisher.

Example: Williams, M. (Producer & Director). (2007). Inside the living body [DVD]. National Geographic.

Helpful Information


For websites, the person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author. If there is a composer or artist, you would just list their name as well with no label. All other types of authors are labeled in parenthesis. These can be (Writer), (Director), (Host), (Executive Producer), and (Producer).

Usernames can be included in place of author’s real name if real name is not known. If both real name and username are known, include both with username listed second, in brackets.  


For sharing websites, include the date uploaded or posted formatted (Year, Month Day). Example (2024, January 15).

For TV Series, include the date the episode aired  (Year, Month Day). Example (2021, March 24).

For Film or videos, include the year (Year). Example (2004).


For all videos title, capitalize only proper nouns and the first word of the article title and subtitle.

All Uploaded/Films/TV Series Tiles should be italicize. Titles of individual episodes of TV series are not in italics. For the website names, capitalize all the significant words in the title. Do not use italics or quotation marks.

Note: If you mention a video title in your paper, all major words should be capitalized and it should be in italics.

Type of Media/Description:

Describe the audiovisual work in square brackets []. It is not necessary to specify how you watched a video (e.g., streaming on iTunes etc.), but the format or other descriptive information may be included in brackets following the title. Example: How to diagram a sentence [Video] Other Examples: [DVD], [TV series], [TV series episode], [Film], [Song],


Double space entries. If an entry runs more than one line, use a hanging indent to indent any additional lines beyond the first.

Capitalize proper nouns and the first words of title and subtitle.

Acceptable abbreviations can be found on pp. 306-7 of the APA manual.

If what you are citing is not listed in APA manual, choose the example in the manual most like your source.     

Video on a Websites (APA)

Format:  Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Type of Media/Description]. Website Name. URL

YouTube Example (Single Author): Green, B. (2015, March 18). Biology: Cell structure [Video]. YouTube. 

YouTube Example (Group Author): University of Chicago [UofChicago]. (2020, January 15). New research update from department of nursing [Video]. YouTube. 

Vimeo Example: Smith, M. [Grammar Guru]. (2020, March 8). Comma mistakes [Video]. Vimeo. 


Present URL’s as hyperlinks beginning with http:// or https:// taking the reader directly to the source.

Film/Video on a Databases (APA)

Format:  Author(s). (Date). Title of video [Type of Media/Description]. Publishers Name.

TV Episode Format:  Author(s). (Date). Title of episode (Season #, Episode #) [TV series episode]. In Producers of the show (Executive Producers), Title of series. Publishers Name.

Academic Video Online Film Example (1 Author): Loeterman, B. (Writer & Director). (2009). The people v. Leo Frank [Film]. Ben Leoterman Productions.

Films on Demand TV Episode Example (2 Authors): Sclar, J. & Sclar R. (Hosts). (2012, May 22). Size matters (Season 1, Episode 3) [TV series episode]. In B. Tarver, D. Hoostra, J. Vershoff, K. Druckerman, & P. Cabana (Executive Producers), United stats of America.  Left-Right Films.

Film/Video on Streaming Website (APA)

Format:  Author(s). (Date). Title of video [Type of Media/Description]. Publishers Name.

TV Episode Format:  Author(s). (Date). Title of episode (Season #, Episode #) [TV series episode]. In Producers of the show (Executive Producers), Title of series. Publishers Name.

Hulu Film Example (1 Author): Wilde, O. (Director). (2019) Booksmart [Film]. Annapuna Pictures, Gloria Sanchez Productions.

Netflix TV Series Episode Example(group):  The Duffer Brothers (Writers & Directors). (2017, October 27). Chapter eight: The mind flayer (Season 2, Episode 8) [TV series episode]. In The Duffer Brothers, S. Levy, D. Cohen, B. Wright, C. Holland, J. Mecklenburg, M. Thunell, K. Gajdusek, I. Paterson, C. Gwinn (Executive Producers). Stranger things. 21 Lap Entertainment, Monkey Massacre Productions.

In-Text Citation for a Recording (Video, Film, Audio, etc.)

When citing a direct quotation or paraphrasing specific section or idea in a recording (video, film, audio, etc.), put the author’s last name or user name, the year, a time stamp for the relevant section in parenthesis. Each number section (hours:minutes:seconds) in time stamp should separated by a colon, without space on either side. If not citing a direct quote or paraphrasing specific section or idea in a recording, you do not include the timestamp.

Example (One Author):  "That yearning for justice that I feel" (Ferriss, 2018, 18:23).

Example (Two Authors in the sentence): Sclar & Sclar (2012) said  "United States used to be the tallest nation. Now, many nations are taller, with the US ranked number 8" (2:23-25).

Example: Group or Organization or User Name  Not knowing how to cook means, "you are hostage to the food industry" (Stanford Health Library, 2015, 1:01:29).

Example: User Name and not using a direct quote or paraphrasing  This source gives a real life example of some of the pit falls to dumpster diving when the the police show up to stop the person in the video from recovering the trash (Freakin Frugal, 2021).