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APA Guide

This guide contains information to help you cite your sources in APA format.

Citing Personal Communications such as Interviews, Emails, Etc.

Reference List

Do not include interviews, emails, or other personal communications as sources in your reference list at the end of your paper. However, you will need to cite them in-text when you refer to them in your paper.

Format In-text 

You will need to cite personal communication such as emails and interviews in-text when you refer to them in your paper.

Example 1: J. A. Smith (personal communication, August 21, 2016) asserts that nursing is a difficult but rewarding profession.
or

Example 2: Nursing is a difficult but rewarding profession (J.A. Smith, personal communication, August 21, 2016).