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ENG 101 - Great American Trials

Cite Your Sources in APA Format

Here are a few examples to help you cite your sources in APA format:

How to Cite an Entire Book or Ebook (Print or Electronic)

Format: Author(s). (Year). Title of book in italics (Edition ed., Vol. volume number). Publisher. DOI/URL.

*Note: If no DOI, skip. If using a non-database (online) E-Book include the URL.

Example: Marvel, L. (2003). The Salem witch trials. Greenhaven Press.

How to Cite Part of a Book or Ebook (Print or Electronic)

Format: Author(s) of Part. (Year). Title of part. In Editor's Name (Ed.), Title of book in italics (Edition ed., Vol. volume number, pp. page numbers of part). Publisher. DOI/URL

Example: Evans, C. (2003). Chicago seven trial: 1969. Great American trials (pp. 586-90). Visible Ink Press.

Example: Wolf, K. (2007). The Lindbergh baby murder case: A crime of the century. In F.Y. Bailey & S.M. Chermak (Eds.), Crimes and trials of the century (Vol. 2, pp.153-67). Greenwood Press.

How to Cite a Journal Article from a Database

Format: Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Journal/Magazine in ItalicsVolume number in italics(issue number), page numbers of article. DOI

Electronic Article with a DOI given

EBSCO Database Example: Lawrence, A. B. (2018). A murder that mattered: Sam Sheppard, the Supreme Court, and free press/fair trial. Journal of Supreme Court History, 43(2), 160-172.

Electronic Article from a database without DOI

Gale Database Example: Lindbergh legacy. (2013). Aviation History, 23(4), 21.

How to Cite a Website

Format:  Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article in italics. Website Name. URL 

Note: Cite an online source as a website only if no other type of source applies to it. 

Note: If you're citing multiple articles or webpage from the same website, then create a reference entry for each one.

Famous Trials Website Example 1 (Trial Overview)

Linder, D.O. (1995-2023). Leo Frank trial (1913). Famous Trials.

Famous Trials Website Example 2 (Primary Sources)

Testimony of George Epps. (1995-2023). In D.O. Linder (Ed.), Famous Trials.

Famous Trials Website Example 3 (Primary Sources with Specific Date and Author)

Ransdall, H. (1931, May 27). Report on the Scottsboro, In D.O. Linder (Ed.), Famous Trials.

How to Cite a Magazine or Newspaper Article

Format:  Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magizine/Newspaper in italics, Volume number in italics(issue number), page numbers of article. DOI/URL 

*Note:  If using a print or database article use the DOI (if no DOI, skip). If using a non-database article (website) with no DOI, use the URL instead. It will be very rare to find a magazine or newspaper article with a DOI.


Print or Electronic Article (Database) with a DOI given

Print or Gale Database Example: Goldfarb, S. J. (1996, October). Framed. American Heritage, 47(6), 108+.

Print or Electronic Article from a Database with no DOI given

Print or EBSCO Database Example: Cannon, A., & Forsyth, K. V. (1999). Crime stories of the century. U.S. News & World Report127(22), 40.

U.S Major Dailies Example:  Barron, J. (2023, July 27). Finally, a memorial to the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire’s victims : New York Today. The New York Times.

Electronic Article from the Internet (Not from a Database) with no DOI given

Example: Boy slayers calm as state demands they die by noose. (1924, July 23). Evening Star, 1-2.

In-Text Citations

1 Author

Place the author’s last name and the year in parenthesis. If the in-text citation is at the end of a sentence, place the period outside the parenthesis.

Example 1: Chickens have been known to cross roads (Jordon, 2017).
Example 2: Jordon (2017) discussed how chickens like to cross roads.

2 Authors

If a source has two authors, use an ampersand (&) between the names in the parenthesis. Use "and" when referring to the authors in the text of your paper. Include both names every time you cite the source.

Example 1: The chicken was forced to cross the road (Smith & Jones, 2013).

Example 2: Smith and Jones (2013) also discovered that the chicken crossed the road.

3 or More Authors

When a source has three or more authors, list the first author followed by et al. (Latin for "and others").

Example 1: The chicken was forced to cross the road (Adams et al., 2009).

Example 2: Adams et al. (2009) discovered who forced the chicken to cross the road.

Group Author (Organization or Company)

When a source's author is a company, organization , or other group, the name of that group goes in the author position.

Example 1: The chicken was forced to cross the road (Stanford University, 2020)

Example 2: Stanford University (2020) discovered who forced the chicken to cross the road.

No Author

If a source has no author and is listed on the reference page by its title, use the first few words of the title and the year. Put double quotation marks ( " ) around article or chapter titles and italicize periodical and book titles. Unlike the reference page, the main words of the title should be capitalized.

Example of a book without an author given: The chicken made a conscious decision to cross the road (The Big Book of Chickens, 2015).

Example of an article with no author given: The chicken did not want to cross the road ("The Case of the Chicken and the Road," 2016).

No Date

When a source does not have a date listed, use n.d. in the in-text citation in place of the date.

Example of an article with no date given: Chickens often cross roads when they are hungry (Johnson et al., n.d.).

Example of an article with no author and no date given: Chickens first began their passage across the road in the late 11th century ("History of the Chicken," n.d.).

Additional In-Text Citations Examples

APA Handouts