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ENG 101 - Human Rights Abuses

This guide will help you find information about a country and human rights abuses that occur in that country.

Cite Your Sources in APA Format

Here are a few examples to help you cite your sources in APA format:

How to Cite Part of a Book or Ebook (Print or Electronic)

Format: Author(s) of Part. (Year). Title of part. In Editor's Name (Ed.), Title of book in italics (Edition ed., Vol. volume number, pp. page numbers of part). Publisher. DOI/URL

*Note: If no DOI, skip. Only use URL if found on website not as part of a database.

Print Book or Ebook with DOI

Hepburn, S. & Simon, R.J. (2013). South Africa. In Human trafficking around the world: Hidden in plain sight (pp. 271-294)Columbia University Press.

Print Book or Ebook with no DOI

Shaw, S.M., Barbour, N.S., Duncan, P., Freehling-Burton, K., & Nichols, J. (2018). China. In Women's lives around the world: A global encyclopedia (vol. 3, pp. 51-67). ABC-CLIO.

How to Cite a Journal Article from a Database

Format: Author(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal in ItalicsVolume number in italics(issue number), page numbers of article. DOI

Note:  If using a print article or database article use the DOI (if no DOI, skip).

Example: Akita, M., Shahin, Y., & Seita, A. (2021). Scaling up mental health care for refugee populations: A model by UNRWA. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 27(12).


How to Cite a Magazine or Newspaper Article

Format:  Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magizine/Newspaper in italics, Volume number in italics(issue number), page numbers of article. DOI/URL 

*Note:  If using a print or database article use the DOI (if no DOI, skip). If using a non-database article (website) with no DOI, use the URL instead. It will be very rare to find a magazine or newspaper article with a DOI.


Print or Electronic Article (Database) with a DOI given

Print or Gale Database Example: Paragi, B., & Altamimi, A. (2022). Caring control or controlling care? Double bind facilitated by biometrics between UNHCR and Syrian refugees in Jordan. Society and Economy: Journal of the Corvinus University of Budapest, 44(2), 206+.

Print or Electronic Article from a Database with no DOI given

Print or EBSCO Database Example: PR Newswire. (2023, June 27). Population Media Center’s (PMC) collaboration in Nepal achieves impactful change through entertainment. PR Newswire US.

Newsbank: Access World News Example:  Beaumont, P., Manisha, G., & Borger, J. (2023, August 30). Germany and US trained Saudi forces accused of killing Yemen migrants - Training given despite growing concern over scale of human rights abuses in Saudi Arabia. The Guardian (London, England), p. 23.

How to Cite a Graph from Statista

Format: Author Last Name, Author First Initial. (Year). Title of Image/Graph [Type of Media]. Publisher.

Example: Countries with the largest number of people in modern slavery, as of 2018 [Infographic]. (2022). Trafficking Matters.

How to Cite a Website

Format:  Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article in italics. Website Name. URL 

Note: Cite an online source as a website only if no other type of source applies to it. For instance, many magazines and newspapers publish articles on their websites - in cases like this, you would cite the article as if it were an online magazines or newspaper article (not a website article). This holds true for journal articles, conference procedures, social media posts, blog posts, online videos, etc. You may need to check the APA manual or ask a librarian to see if your type of source is listed.

Example: Motaparthy, P. (2018, Sep. 11). Key steps taken to end use of child soldiers in Syria. Human Rights Watch.

How to Cite Information from CultureGrams

Format:  Article title. (Year). In Title of Database, publisher.

Example (Whole Section): 

Kenya. (2024). In CultureGrams, ProQuest.

Example (Specific Page): 

Kenya: Family. (2024). In CultureGrams, ProQuest.

Example (Image): 

People of Kenya. (2024).  In CultureGrams, ProQuest.

In-Text Citations

1 Author

Place the author’s last name and the year in parenthesis. If the in-text citation is at the end of a sentence, place the period outside the parenthesis.

Example 1: Chickens have been known to cross roads (Jordon, 2017).
Example 2: Jordon (2017) discussed how chickens like to cross roads.

2 Authors

If a source has two authors, use an ampersand (&) between the names in the parenthesis. Use "and" when referring to the authors in the text of your paper. Include both names every time you cite the source.

Example 1: The chicken was forced to cross the road (Smith & Jones, 2013).

Example 2: Smith and Jones (2013) also discovered that the chicken crossed the road.

3 or More Authors

When a source has three or more authors, list the first author followed by et al. (Latin for "and others").

Example 1: The chicken was forced to cross the road (Adams et al., 2009).

Example 2: Adams et al. (2009) discovered who forced the chicken to cross the road.

Group Author (Organization or Company)

When a source's author is a company, organization , or other group, the name of that group goes in the author position.

Example 1: The chicken was forced to cross the road (Stanford University, 2020)

Example 2: Stanford University (2020) discovered who forced the chicken to cross the road.

No Author

If a source has no author and is listed on the reference page by its title, use the first few words of the title and the year. Put double quotation marks ( " ) around article or chapter titles and italicize periodical and book titles. Unlike the reference page, the main words of the title should be capitalized.

Example of a book without an author given: The chicken made a conscious decision to cross the road (The Big Book of Chickens, 2015).

Example of an article with no author given: The chicken did not want to cross the road ("The Case of the Chicken and the Road," 2016).

No Date

When a source does not have a date listed, use n.d. in the in-text citation in place of the date.

Example of an article with no date given: Chickens often cross roads when they are hungry (Johnson et al., n.d.).

Example of an article with no author and no date given: Chickens first began their passage across the road in the late 11th century ("History of the Chicken," n.d.).

Additional In-Text Citations Examples

APA Handouts