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ENG 101 - Human Rights Abuses

This guide will help you find information about a country and human rights abuses that occur in that country.

Cite Your Sources in MLA Format

Here are a few examples to help you cite your sources in MLA format:

How to Cite Part of a Book or Ebook (Print or Electronic)

Format: Author(s). "Title of Part." Title of Book, edited by Editor, edition, vol. #, Publisher, Year, page number(s). Database Name (if electronic), URL.

How to Cite a Journal Article from a Database

Format: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #, Date of Publication, page number(s). Database Name (if electronic), URL.

Example: Melugin, Jessica."Net Neutrality is Bad for Consumers." Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, 2018.Opposing Viewpoints in Context,

How to Cite a Website

Format: Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Website in Italics, Website Publisher (if different than title), Date of publication, URL.

Example: Motaparthy, Priyanka. "Key Steps Taken to End Use of Child Soldiers in Syria." Human Rights Watch, 11 Sept. 2018,

*Note:  Exclude publisher if title of website and publisher are the same.
*Note: If website does not have a date, add an access date at the end after the URL: Accessed 7 May 2016.
*Note: Do not include the http:// or https:// in the URL.


How to Cite a Graph from Statista

Format: Creator(s). "Title of Graph." Title of Source in Italics, Publisher, Date. Database Name, URL.

Example: “Countries with the Largest Number of People in Modern Slavery, as of 2018.” Global Slavery Index 2018, Trafficking Matters, 13 Sept. 2022. Statista,


How to Cite Information from CultureGrams

Format: "Title of Article." Database Name, Publisher, Date, URL.

Example (Whole Section): "Kenya." CultureGrams, ProQuest, 2024,

Example (Specific Page): "Kenya: Family." CultureGrams, ProQuest, 2024,

Example (Image): "People of Kenya." CultureGrams, ProQuest, 2024,

Multiple Works with Same Title

A note for in-text citations:  If you have multiple articles on your Works Cited page with no authors that also have the same titles, use the next part of the citation to differentiate the sources in-text. This could be the database name or the name of the book or encyclopedia (or journal or website) that your article came from. You can shorten longer titles as long as it's clear which citation on your works cited page the in-text is referring to. See the examples below:

Works Cited 1: "China." CultureGrams, ProQuest, 2021.

Works Cited 2: "China." Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, edited by M.S. Hill, 14th ed., vol. 4, Gale, 2017, pp. 143-180. Global Issues in Context,

In-Text 1: ("China," CultureGrams).

In-Text 2: ("China," Worldmark Encyclopedia).

In-Text Citations

This in-text citation information will get you started, but see our full In-text Citation Guide for more information and additional examples.

Basic Format: 1 Author and Page Numbers

Place the author’s last name and page number in parenthesis. If the in-text citation is at the end of a sentence, place the period outside the parenthesis.

Example 1: (Hennessy 81).

Example 2: (Hennessy 81-82).

No Page Numbers

If a source has no page numbers, omit the page number. Keep in mind, most electronic sources do not include pages.

Example 1: ("Everyday Victims")

Example 2: (Jones)

No Author

If the source has no author, your in-text citation will use the title of the source that starts your works cited entry. The title may appear in the sentence itself or, abbreviated, before the page number in parenthesis.

Example 1: (“Noon” 508).

Example 2: (Faulkner’s Novels 25).

Example 3: (“Climate Model Simulations").

2 Authors

If the entry on the Works Cited page begins with the names of two authors, include both last names in the in-text citation, connected by and.

Example: (Dorris and Erdrich 23).

3+ Authors

If the source has three or more authors, include the first author’s last name followed by et al.

Example: (Burdick et al. 42).