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CSE Style Guide

This guide contains information to help you cite sources in CSE format.

CSE 8th edition Citation Sequence



In CSE style, the author's last name is first, followed by initials. No commas are used to offset the author's last name from his or her initials, no space separates the first and middle initial, and periods do not, in general, follow initials.  For sources with two to ten authors list all authors; sources with more than ten authors list the first ten followed by et al. When there is no author given, skip the author and start with the title of the source. 

ExampleLosos JB. Evolution: a lizard's tale. Sci Am. 2001 Mar; 284(3): 64-69.



In CSE style, titles of periodicals (newspapers, journals, magazines) are capitalized as they normally are with the important words capitalized; book and article titles have only the first word of the title and proper nouns capitalized. You will not use italics for periodical or book titles, which differs from other citation styles you may be accustomed to. 

Journal titles must be abbreviated in citations in CSE style. Rules for journal abbreviation are complex and the correct abbreviation is not always obvious. The List of Title Word Abbreviations is a searchable database of words commonly found in titles and their correct abbreviations. Additionally, a list of journal titles and their abbreviations may be found at ISI Web of Science.



Citations are presented in the order in which they are introduced in the text (not alphabetically). This means that the work that is cited first in the text (and thus assigned the number "1") appears in the list first, the work assigned the number "2" appears next, and so on.


In-Text Reference: 

No effective treatments are available, apart from hydration, oxygen, and upper airway suctioning if needed.1 Noninvasive CPAP has been proven to be effective as a respiratory support in moderate
to severe bronchiolitis 2 to avoid invasive ventilation by decreasing respiratory muscles upload. 


End Reference:

1. Ralston SL, Lieberthal AS, Meissner HC, Alverson BK, Baley JE, Gadomski AM, Smith JD, Ferrell WL, Peele JH, Key MK, et al. Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 2014;134(5):e1474–e1502.
2. Thia LP, McKenzie SA, Blyth TP, Minasian CC, Kozlowska WJ, Carr SB. Randomised controlled trial of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) in bronchiolitis. Arch Dis Child 2008;



CSE style does not specify a preferred line spacing in bibliographies. Instead, this decision is left at the publisher's (or your instructor's) discretion.