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BIO 101 - Research Paper (Winterrowd)

This guide is designed to help you complete Dr. Winterrowd's BIO 101 research guide.

6. Cite Your Sources

Here are a few examples, based on the assignment from your instructor, of how to simply cite your sources for this paper. Sources should appear alphabetical on a Literature Cited page at the end of your paper. Citations are an important part of avoiding plagiarism.

For scientific articles: Author(s). Publication Date. Title of Article. Title of Journal Volume and Issue Number, page numbers.

Example: Fisher, R.A. 1936. Has Mendel's Work Been Rediscovered? Annals of Science 1, pp. 115-137.

 

For books: Author(s). Publication Date. Title of Book. edition. Publisher.

Example:Futuyma, D.J. 1986. Evolutionary Biology. 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates. 

 

For chapters in books: Author(s). Publication Date. Title of Chapter. In Title of Book. page numbers. Publisher.

Example: Campbell, N.A., J.B. Reece, E.J. Simon. 2007. Patterns of Inheritance. In Essential Biology with Physiology. pp. 143-70. Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

In-Text Citations

It is important that your paper includes in-text citations (also known as parenthetical references) whenever you bring in ideas from outside sources. Even if you're summarizing or paraphrasing (rewording) the information, you have to include an in-text citation to give credit for the idea(s) to the original author.

See below for some examples on how to simply to do this in your paper. (This is very similar to APA style, so you can refer to our APA In-Text Citation Guide for more details).

What to Include:

Place the author of the source the idea came from in parentheses along with the year of the publication.

Where does it go?

You can do in-text citations one of two ways. Both are correct. Use the one that most naturally fits into your paper.

Option 1: At the End of the Sentence. You can place the in-text citation at the end of the sentence like so (Fisher 1936).

Example 1: The combination of DMBA treatment with lactational exposure to BPA demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in mammary tumor multiplicity and reduced tumor latency compared with controls (Jenkins 2019).

Option 2: Mention Author in Sentence. The second way to do an in-text citation involves mentioning the author's name in the sentence. This is very common in academic writing.

Example 2: Jenkins et al. (2019) discovered that the combination of DMBA treatment with lactational exposure to BPA demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in mammary tumor multiplicity and reduced tumor latency compared with controls (Jenkins 2019).

Have Multiple Authors?

2 Authors: use 'and' in between their last names (Jenkins and Moore 2019).

3 or More Authors: list the first author's last name followed by 'et al.' which is an abbreviation of a latin phrase meaning 'and others' (Jenkins et al. 2019).