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ENG 101 - Countries Compare and Contrast (Grigg)

5. Citing Your Sources in MLA Format

How to Cite Part of a Book

Print Book

Format: Author(s). "Title of Part." Title of Book in Italics, edited by Editor, edition, vol. #, Publisher, Year, page number(s). Database Name in Italics (if electronic), URL.

Example: Sanchez, Liz. "How Zoos Help Preserve the World's Species for the Future." The Writer's Mindset, edited by Lisa Wright Hoeffner, McGraw Hill, 2022, pp. 523-24.

E-Textbooks

Example: Delgado, Tierra. "A Food Pantry Worth Admiring." The Writers Mindset, edited by Lisa Wright Hoeffner, McGraw Hill, 2022, pp. 195-98. Connect, mheducation.com.

*Note: You can usually omit the http:// unless needed to hyperlink.

*Note: For URLs longer than 3 lines, you can shorten the URL. Always retain the host (main website) of the URL.


How to Cite a Journal Article from a Database

Format: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #, Date of Publication, page number(s). Database Name (if electronic), URL.

Example: Bhaumik, Sanjukta and Sudhansubala Sahu. "My Motherhood, My Way: A Sociological Study of Contemporary Employed Mothers in Kolkata."  Journal of International Women's Studies, vol. 22, no. 6, July 2021, pp. 66+. Gale in Context: Global Issues, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A668597435/OVIC?u=spartechcl&sid=bookmark-OVIC&xid=5220bf88.


How to Cite Information from CultureGrams

Format: "Title of Article." Database Name, Publisher, Date of Publication, URL.

​Example (Whole Section): "Kenya." CultureGrams Online Edition, ProQuest, 2019, online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?cid=85&cn=Kenya&ctid=1.

Example (Specific Page): "Kenya: Family." CultureGrams Online Edition, ProQuest, 2019, online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country_sections.php?cid=85&cn=Kenya&sname=Family&snid=11.

Example (Image): "Kibera Slums." CultureGrams Online Edition, ProQuest, 2010, online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country_sections.php?cid=85&cn=Kenya&sname=Family&snid=11.

Multiple Works with the Same Title

A note for in-text citations:  If you have multiple articles on your Works Cited page with no authors that also have the same titles, use the next part of the citation to differentiate the sources in-text. This could be the database name or the name of the book or encyclopedia (or journal or website) that your article came from. You can shorten longer titles as long as it's clear which citation on your works cited page the in-text is referring to. See the examples below:


​Works Cited 1: "China." CultureGrams, ProQuest, 2018, online-culturegrams-com.eu1.proxy.openathens.net/world/world_country.php?cid=34&cn=China.

​Works Cited 2: "China." Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, edited by M.S. Hill, 14th ed., vol. 4, Gale, 2017, pp.143-180. Gale in Context Global Issues, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3652100183.                              

​In-Text 1: ("China," CultureGrams).

​In-Text 2: ("China," Worldmark Encyclopedia). 

In-Text Citations

1 Author and Page Numbers

Place the author’s last name and page number in parenthesis. If the in-text citation is at the end of a sentence, place the period outside the parenthesis.

Example 1: (Hennessy 81).

Example 2: (Hennessy 81-82).


No Page Numbers

If a source has no page numbers, omit the page number. Keep in mind, most electronic sources do not include pages.

Example 1: ("Everyday Victims")

Example 2: (Jones)


No Author

If the source has no author, your in-text citation will use the title of the source that starts your works cited entry. The title may appear in the sentence itself or, abbreviated, before the page number in parenthesis.

Example 1: (“Noon” 508).

Example 2: (Faulkner’s Novels 25).

Example 3: (“Climate Model Simulations").


2 Authors

If the entry on the Works Cited page begins with the names of two authors, include both last names in the in-text citation, connected by and.

Example: (Dorris and Erdrich 23).


3+ Authors

If the source has three or more authors, include the first author’s last name followed by et al.

Example: (Burdick et al. 42).

Additional In-Text Citations Examples

MLA Handouts