Here are a few examples to help you cite your sources in MLA format:
Format: Author(s). Title of Book in Italics. Edition, Publisher, Year. Database Name in Italics. (if electronic), URL.
*Note: if using a print book, skip the database name.
Format: Author(s). "Title of Part." Title of Book, edited by Editor, edition, vol. #, Publisher, Year, page number(s). Database Name (if electronic), URL.
Format: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #, Date of Publication, page number(s). Database Name (if electronic), URL.
Format: Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Website in Italics, Website Publisher (if different than title), Date of publication, URL.
*Note: Exclude publisher if title of website and publisher are the same.
*Note: If website does not have a date, add an access date at the end after the URL: Accessed 7 May 2016.
*Note: Do not include the http:// or https:// in the URL.
If you quote, paraphrase or summarize a source in your paper, it needs to be cited in the text. An in-text citation contains just enough information to help the reader find the source on the Works Cited page. A typical in-text citation will include what comes first on the Works Cited page such as author or title, followed by exact page number (if available) of the information used. Often, with electronic sources, you may not know the page number your information came from, in these cases, skip the page number and just the author or title.
There are also some special circumstances to keep in mind such as Block Quotes, multiple works with the same title, multiple words with the same author, two different authors with the same last name, videos or recordings, and mentioning the author's name or title in the sentence.
For help with in-text citations, check out our MLA In-text Handout, our sample paper, or the online MLA Handbook chapter on in-text citations.
Place the author’s last name and page number in parenthesis. If the in-text citation is at the end of a sentence, place the period outside the parenthesis.
Example 1: (Hennessy 81).
Example 2: (Hennessy 81-82).
If a source has no page numbers, omit the page number. Keep in mind, most electronic sources do not include pages.
Example 1: (“Everyday Victims”).
Example 2: (Jones).
If the source has no author, your in-text citation will use the title of the source that starts your works cited entry. The title may appear in the sentence itself or, abbreviated, before the page number in parenthesis. Follow the same format as the Works Cited entry; i.e. if the title is in quotes or italics in the Works Cited entry, then it should match – quotes or italics – in the in-text entry. Exclude any initial article in the title such as a, an, the. Titles can be abbreviated/shortened as long as it’s clear which title on the Works Cited page you’re referring to.
Example 1: (“Noon” 508).
Example 2: (Faulkner’s Novels 25).
Example 3: (“Climate Model Simulations").
If the entry on the Works Cited page begins with the names of two authors, include both last names in the in-text citation, connected by and.
Example: (Dorris and Erdrich 23).
If the source has three or more authors, include the first author’s last name followed by et al.
Example: (Burdick et al. 42).
If author is mentioned in the sentence, include only the page number(s) in parenthesis. Do not repeat the author’s name. If you do not have page numbers for your source (most electronic sources are like this), skip the page numbers.
Example 1: Hennessy tells how Auden’s writing was popular with contemporary readers and critics (81).
Example 2: Galt says, "an increasing number of companies have a dedicated social media position" (122).
Example 3 (no author): In the article, "Beginners Guide to Yoga," the standing forward bend is highlighted as a great position for people with back pain (130).
Example 4 (no page numbers): Smith reports that there are many options for paid social meeting monitoring services and the cost varies considerably.
Example 5 (no page numbers): Groves says that "regular yoga practice can be good for building strength."